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European Society for the Cognitive Sciences of Music
Liège, April 2002


To celebrate its


ESCOM organises from 5 to 8 April 2002
At the Unversity of Liège (Ulg, City center buildings)

A conference around


Marc Melen and Irene Deliege

Unité de Recherche en Psychologie de la Musique
Université de Liège, Arts et Sciences de la Musique
Centre de Recherches et de Formation Musicales de Wallonie

Honorary committee
Robert Wangermee (President of the Conseil Superieur de la Musique de la
	Communaute française)
Willy Legros (President of the ULg)
Bernard Rentier (Vice-President of the ULg)
Louis Kupper (Dean of the Faculty of Philosophy and Letters, ULg)
Marcel Crahay (Dean of the Faculty of Psychology and Educational Sciences, ULg)


The programme will involve keynote lectures, symposiums and individual
contributions (spoken papers and posters). The themes of the individual
contributions are free. However, the topics concerning the themes of the keynote
lectures. The contributions not immediately related to musical creativity, but
likely to shed light on this domain, are also welcomed.

Deadline for submissions:           15 November 2001
Notification of evaluation:         15 December 2001

Authors are invited to submit an abstract of 300 words maximum, presenting clearly
the aim of the research, the method and the results obtained. They will provide
also: type of presentation, equipment needed, affiliation, address, phone and fax
number, e-mail. The submissions and notifications will be done EXCLUSIVELY by
e-mail at the following address:


MUSICAE SCIENTIAE will publish a special issue presenting particularly outstanding
individual oral presentations or posters. Awarded candidates will be asked to
submit their final draft by end of October 2002. The papers will be submitted to
the usual peer-review process. A diploma of the 10th anniversary will be
attributed to the selected candidates after publication of their paper.

Scientific Committee: Irene Deliege (University of Liege), Alf Gabrielsson
(Uppsala University), Michel Imberty (Paris-X Nanterre), Marc Melen (University of
Liege), Andrzej Rakowski (Chopin Academy of Music Warsaw), John Sloboda (Keele

The official languages of the conference are English and French. A simultaneous
translation will be organised for the keynotes and the symposia.

Remarks :
The organisers will respect the authors' wish as much as possible. However,
they reserve the right to change the type of presentation.



Performance            		Eric CLARKE		Andreas LEHMANN
                     		(Sheffield University)	(University of Würzburg)

Philosophy and Musicology    	Nicholas COOK		Michel IMBERTY
                     		(University of		(Paris X-Nanterre)

Neurosciences            	Colin MARTINDALE	Eckhardt ALTENMÜLLER
                        	(University of Maine)	(University of Hannover)

Artificial Intelligence     	Peter TODD		Geraint WIGGINS
                  		(Max Planck Institute,	(City university-London)

Education            		Peter WEBSTER		Peter WEBSTER
                  		(Northwestern		(Northwestern University)

Musicotherapy        		Tony WIGRAM             Edith LECOURT
                  		(University of Aalborg)	(University of Strasbourg)

SATELLITE SYMPOSIUM dedicated to Fred LERDAHL's last book « Tonal Spitch Space »
organised by the author.

WORKSHOP on an educational approach for children by the Centre TEMPO REALE
(Florence) and the Ecole Nationale de Musique du pays de Montbeliard.

University of Sheffield

Biographical sketch
Eric F. Clarke went to the University of Sussex to read for a degree in
Neurobiology, and graduated (1977) with a degree in Music. He took an M.A. in
Music at Sussex (1978), studying options in Analysis, Aesthetics and the Sociology
of Music, and completed a doctorate in Psychology (1984) at the University of
Exeter, supervised by Henry Shaffer, writing a thesis on "Structure and Expression
in the Rhythm of Piano Performance". From 1981 he worked as Lecturer, Senior
Lecturer and Reader in music at City University in London. In 1993, he took up his
present post of Professor of Music at the University of Sheffield. He is a
consulting editor for the journals Music Perception and Musicae Scientiae, on the
Editorial Board for the journal Music Analysis, and a member of the Advisory Panel
for the Journal of the Royal Musical Association. He has published widely on
musical performance and perception (with a particular focus on rhythm and timing).
He is currently contracted to Oxford University Press for an edited book with
Nichoilas Cook on Empirical Musicology, : Aims, Methods, Prospects and a monograph
on listening which considers the relationship between the perception of music and
the perception of environmental sound, with an emphasis on the meaning and
aesthetic impact of music.

Keynote abstract
All musical performance is creative in the sense that it gives rise to sound; but
clearly some kinds of performance, and performance in certain musical idioms,
display more conspicuously creative characteristics than others. This paper
reviews some of the considerable volume of research that has investigated
different aspects of creativity in performance, and considers different
perspectives on how this creativity might be accounted for and understood. While
acknowledging the creativity in all performance, it is in improvised performance
that creativity is arguably at its most obvious. The study of improvisation, and
of the origins of improvised creativity, therefore constitute an important part of
this paper, seen from both cognitive and social perspectives. This in turn raises
a number of aesthetic issues in improvisation which have broadly psychological
implications: Who is improvisation for - the performers or the audience? How might
different genres of improvisation be defined, and do they raise different
questions, and demand different approaches? What is the particular fascination of
improvisation by comparison with composition or performance? The paper concludes
with some suggestions for domains and methods within the study of improvisation
which have so far received little or no attention.

University of Southampton

Biographical sketch
A musicologist and theorist, Nicholas Cook contributed to found the Department of
Music at the Universities of Hong Kong and taught at the University of Sydney.
Professor of Music at the University of Southampton in 1990, he was Head of the
Department of Music (1990-1995) and Dean of the Faculty of Arts (1996-1998). He
was then visiting professor at Yale University (1994) and Ohio State University
(2000). He is editor of the Journal of the Royal Musical Association, and is on
the editorial board or advisory panel of other journals including Music Analysis,
Music Theory Online, and Musicae Scientiae. His articles have appeared in most of
the major journals of music analysis and musicology. His books include A Guide to
Musical Analysis (1987), Music, Imagination, and Culture (1990), Music: A Very
Short Introduction (1998) and Rethinking Music (1999, co-edited with Mark
Everist). Current research includes projects on Schenker and on the analysis of
performance. In 2001, he was elected a Fellow of the British Academy.

Keynote abstract
Separate developments in the sixteenth century, and then again around 1800,
constructed the experience of music in the West as an apprehension of it as the
work of its author. Interest in music became a mode if interest in its creator. It
is therefore not surprising that a close association developed between musical
analysis and the concept of creativity, particularly as an aesthetic based on the
affects (and hence on the listener) gave way to the Romantic cult of genius. It
has sometimes been observed that theories such as Schenker's are as much theories
of genius as of music. In this paper I show how changing notions of creativity
underlie familiar analytical strategies, constituting part of the hidden baggage
that any analytical approach brings with it. Much nineteenth-century theory can be
seen as an amalgam of the descriptive and the prescriptive. On the one hand A. B.
Marx, for instance, sought to elucidate the workings of genius in Beethoven's
music, while on the other he sought to build such insights into a pedagogy of
musical creation. In the twentieth century these distinct epistemological streams
became both more separate and, paradoxically, more confused. On the one hand the
tradition that ran (however uncertainly) from Schenker to Forte sought to
rationalise the study of music by emphasizing the musical object at the expense of
its creator. On the other, a tradition that passed from Schoenberg to Boretz and
his followers regards theory as inseparable from compositional practice. In
reality, however, these apparently distinct traditions have become inextricably
intertwined, resulting in almost unlimited possibilities of epistemological
slippage - possibilities which I illustrate through a brief consideration of the
work of Lerdahl and Jackendoff.

University of Maine

Biographical sketch
Colin Martindale obtained his Ph.D. in clinical psychology from Harvard University
in 1970 and is presently professor of psychology at the University of Maine. His
research has been focused primarily on psychological aesthetics and creativity. He
is award winner of many scientific prices and honorary distinctions, such as award
of the American Association for the Advancement of Science (Socio-Psychological
Prize, 1984), Doctorat Honoris Causa at the Université Catholique de Louvain
(1988), Honorary Professor of Psychology and Art, Perm State Institute of Arts and
Culture (Russia, 1997), Fechner Award for Outstanding Contributions to Empirical
Aesthetics (2000). He was president of the American Psychological Association,
Division 10 (Psychology and the Arts) in 1986-1987 and of the International
Association of Empirical Aesthetics (1994-1998). He is a member of the Editorial
board of several journals: Empirical Studies of the Arts, Poetics, The Journal of
Mind and Behavior, Journal of Creative Behavior, The Creativity Research Journal.
He is the author of over 200 articles, chapters, and books. His books include:
Cognition and consciousness (1981), The clockwork muse: The predictability of
artistic change (1990), Cognitive psychology:  A neural-network Approach (1991),
and Emotion, creativity, and art (co-edited book in 2 volumes, 1997). He recently
wrote a chapter entitled Biological bases of creativity in the Handbook of
Creativity (J. Sternberg, Ed., 1999).

Keynote abstract
A fairly large portion of the brain is involved in the processing and production
of music. Brain lesions in normal people have given us a fairly good idea of the
localization of various functions involved with music processing. A few cases of
lesions caused by stroke in composers have helped fill out the picture. Though
fairly rare today, post-mortem examinations of the brains of eminently creative
people shed valuable light on creativity and the brain. Contrary to popular
belief, these studies were well done, and their main findings have been
replicated. There are more studies of perception of music and the other arts using
techniques such as EEG and brain scans than there are of differences between more
vs. Less creative people. However, studies of brain functioning in highly creative
people have yielded a consistent picture. There are few differences between more
and less creative people in general, but creative people show distinctive patterns
of EEG activity when they are actually engaged in tasks that call for creativity.
Connectionist or neural-network models of mind suggest reasons why such patterns
literally have to be present for creative ideas to emerge. patterns of EEG
activity when they are actually engaged in tasks that call for creativity.

Max Planck Institute, Berlin

Biographical sketch
Peter Todd studied mathematics and electronic music composition at Oberlin
College. For his PhD (Stanford University) he developed neural network models of
music composition and cognition and of the evolution of learning. His postdoctoral
researches were dedicated to artificial life simulations (Rowland Institute for
Science in Cambridge, Massachusetts). Then he became an assistant professor of
psychology at the University of Denver (Colorado). After having helped found the
Center for Adaptive Behavior and Cognition at the Max Planck Institute for
Psychological Research (Munich), he extended his work on artificial music by
incorpating genetic algorithms. Recently his research interests moved toward the
interactions between decision making and decision environments (see the book
Simple Heuristics That Make Us Smart, 1999). In addition, Peter Todd has coedited
two books on neural network models in music (Music and Connectionism, 1991;
Musical Networks: Parallel Distributed Perception and Performance, 1999) and has
written papers on topics ranging from social decision processes in rats to the
impact of mate choice on biodiversity.

Keynote abstract
Computer models of musical creativity have long been dominated by
knowledge-intensive methods from traditional AI. These models have often involved
laborious processes such as the construction and application of large databases of
compositional rules and examples. More recently, systems have been developed that
apply techniques from the "new AI," including learning neural networks and
evolving genetic algorithms, to the composition of music. Researchers have been
mildly successful in betting neural networks to produce novel melodies based on
learned examples, but they bump up against a limit to the novelty that learning
and generalization can produce. Evolution on the other hand is a process that is
clearly able to generate significant novelty in nature. But it is not clear what
kind of "fitness function"--saying which examples will prosper and which will be
weeded out--should be used in simulated natural selection to evolve interesting
musical patterns. Human listeners could judge the "fitness"-for instance, the
novelty--of the patterns produced in each generation, creating a process akin to
artificial selection. But this, like the older AI models, again requires a large
amount of work (and interaction) on the part of the user. Instead, some composers
are turning to models from the field of artificial life to create simulated
musical agents that they hope can themselves be musically creative. These
artificial organisms may for Instance live out their lives in a musical
environment, inventing "songs" and responding to the songs of other agents, much
as birds do.

Northwestern University

Biographical sketch
Peter Webster holds degrees in music education from the University of Southern
Maine (BS) and the Eastman School of Music at the University of Rochester (MM,
PhD). He is the John Beattie Professor of Music Education and Music Technology at
Northwestern University. He coordinates the music education program at
Northwestern and is the principle advisor for the PhD program in that field. He
teaches in the music cognition and music technology programes. He has served as a
guest lecturer for colleges in Australia, Hong Kong, the UK, and in Portugal. His
published work have appeared in Psychomusicology, Journal of Research in Music
Education, Research Studies in Music Education, Music Education Research, Council
for Research in Music Education Bulletin, Music Educators Journal, and in journals
outside the field of music. He serves on many editorial boards. Webster is
president of the Association for Technology in Music Instruction. He recently
co-edited a large section in the new edition of the Handbook of Research in Music
Teaching and Learning (in press). Webster is co-author with David Williams of
Experiencing Music Technology (1999). He is also writing a new book on music
composition in the schools.

Keynote abstract
Of all the sub-disciplines in music, one would expect music teaching and learning
to be full of wonderful examples of creative thinking. To be sure, there are great
teachers that do challenge children to apply musical concepts and techniques in
creative ways, but the majority of the profession continues to create a very
convergent environment for learning music in which little opportunity exists to
celebrate creative thinking in sound. This talk will review the major forces, in
both music and psychology, that shape a philosophy of music teaching that
encourages creative thinking. A definition of creative thinking in music will be
presented and a link will be made to emerging concepts of constructionism in
education and how they apply to music teaching. The opportunities that music
technology afford the music educator will be reviewed, including brief references
to exciting software that encourages creative thinking in music. will spend some
time reviewing the results of recent research on creative thinking ability from a
cognitive perspective and I will describe possible ways to assess creative
thinking in music with children based on my personal research. A refined model of
creative thinking in music will be presented and I will suggest possible research
topics that might be of interest to the cognitive science community. I will end my
presentation with a number of practical suggestions for encouraging creative
thinking in teaching settings that occur in private studios, rehearsal halls, and

University of Aalborg

Biographical sketch
Tony Wigram read Music Therapy at the Guildhall School of Music (under Juliette
Alvin). He took a qualifying degree in Psychology at Royal Holloway and Bedford
New College (London University) and his Doctorate at St. Georges Medical School
(London University). He is professor of Music Therapy and Head of Phd. Studies in
Music Therapy in the Institute for Music and Music Therapy, University of
Aalborg,. He is Head Music Therapist at the Harper House Children's Service and
Research Advisor to the Horizon N.H.S. Trust. He is Past President of the European
Music Therapy Committee and Past-President of the World Federation of Music
Therapy. He is a Visiting Lecturer in Music Therapy, Child Assessment, Learning
Disability and Vibroacoustic Therapy in universities in England, Australia and
Belgium. He is Adjunct Professor in Music Therapy at CRM, Naples, University of
the Basque Country (Vitoria-Gasteiz). He is a Research Fellow in the Faculty of
Music in Melbourne.  He is a former Chairman of the Association of Professional
Music Therapists, and of the British Society for Music Therapy. He has edited
seven books, and authored many articles. His research interests include the
physiological effect of sound and music, assessment and diagnosis of Autism and
communication disorder, Rett Syndrome, methods of training in music therapy, and
thematic improvisation.

Keynote abstract
The evidence of neuro-developmental impairments in children with autism explains
the presence of social impairments. There are rigid, repetitive, perseverative,
ritualistic and stereotypical patterns of thought and behaviour that retard
learning, and result in the emergence of challenging behaviour at school and at
home. Current diagnosis finds evidence of routine bound and "learnt" imaginative
play that appears to prevent the development of creativity in educational play
from an early age. Clinical research have shown that music created spontaneously
and creatively through structured and flexible improvisation attracts the
attention and provokes engagement in such children, and promotes the development
of reciprocal, interactive contact and play. Evaluation of musical interaction in
music therapy reveals that the presence of structure in music, including 16 and 32
bar frames with stable elements of tempo and meter that still allow flexibility
and freedom promote creative music making in children with ASD. The development of
musical creativity requires a subtle process of learning patterns within musical
structures and frames that then spontaneously develop variability in dynamic,
tempo, duration and accentuation. For children with impairments in their basic
innate skills in communication, this musical interaction can provide a frame for

Please return the following form, along with payment to Marc Mélen at the address
below. Further information concerning the conference, the conference venue, the
registration, etc. can be obtained from Marc Mélen or from the ESCOM Web site


Marc Melen
C/O Marie-Isabelle Collart
Place du Vingt Aout 16
B-4000 Liege
Telephone : + 32/(0)4/223 22 98
Fax : + 32/(0)4/222 06 68
E-mail :


Marc Melen
Unité de Recherche en Psychologie de la Musique
Service d'Arts et Sciences de la Musique
Place du Vingt Aout 7 (A1)
B-4000 Liege
Telephone : + 32/(0)4/366 32 36
Fax : + 32/(0)4/366 51 84
E-mail :


The participants are invited to book their room by taking contact directly with
the hotels. A list of possible hotels is available on the ESCOM Web site:


First name(s)- Surname(s)


Address for correspondence

E-mail                            Tel./Fax


Registration before 15/01/02                 (Amount to complete)
Full Members             175 euros
Student Members          125 euros
Student Non-Members      150 euros
Non-Members              225 euros

Registration after 15/01/02
Full Members             200 euros
Student Members          150 euros
Student Non-Members      175 euros
Non-Members              250 euros

Gala Dinner               40 euros


Remarks :
1 Member discount is available only to ESCOM members in continuous membership from
2000 to 2002 or who take a 3-year membership starting in 2001. For details on how
to apply for membership see the conference web site.

2 The registration includes the book of abstracts, the proceedings, morning and
afternoon tea/coffee breaks, lunches.
3 Euro conversion rates : 1 euro = 40.3399 BEF; 1.95583 DEM; 166.386 ESP; 6.55957
FRF; 0.787564 IEP; 1936.27 ITL; 40.339 LUF; 2.20371 NLG; 13.7603 ATS; 200.482 PTE;
5.94573 FIM; 344.750 GRD; 0.9109 USD (according to the exchange rate on 11 October
2001); 0.6277 BRP (according to the exchange rate on 11 October 2001). For further
information about the euro see the site:
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