32nd Royal Musical Association Research Students’ Conference
York, December 1998
32nd ROYAL MUSICAL ASSOCIATION RESEARCH STUDENTS’ CONFERENCE Department of Music, University of York 14-17 December, 1998PROGRAMME Monday 14 December 15.00-16.30 Registration and Tea 16.30-17.00 Welcome and Keynote Address (Room 106) Professor Nicola LeFanu (University of York) 17.00-18.15 Session 1a (Room 106) Chris Collins (University of Wales, Bangor): Falla and Poulenc: a friendship of opposites Patricia Shaw (University of Melbourne & Australian Catholic University): La Vida breve or La Vie brève: issues of authenticity in Manuel de Falla'sorchestration of his ‘Spanish’ dances Session 1b (Room 120) Stephen Rose (Wolfson College, Cambridge): Reinventing the stile antico: modal theory and print culture in the early German Baroque Matthew Riley (Royal Holloway College, University of London): The attentive listener: musical rhetoric in the German Enlightenment 18.30-19.30 Dinner 20.00-21.30 Session 2 (Sir Jack Lyons Concert Hall) Vania Schittenhelm (University of Reading): Changing forms: arrangements, transcriptions, translations Charles Wiffen (Royal College of Music): Lecture Recital Solo piano transcriptions of Stravinsky’s Pétrouchka: a comparative evaluation and demonstration of the composer’s version with that of Théodore Szántó 21.30 Bar Tuesday 15 December 8.00-9.00 Breakfast 9.30-10.45 Session 3a (Room 106) Monika Hennemann: A history of Mendelssohn’s unwritten operas Briony Williams (University of Reading): Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel and her Goethe lieder: an evolution of style Session 3b (Room 120) Matthew Nisbet (University of Manchester): The Tabley House Lute Book Robert Rawson (Royal Holloway College, University of London): Central European instrumental music in English archives: the autograph of Gottfried Finger identified 10.45-11.15 Coffee 11.15-12.30 Session 4a (Room 106) Natasha Page (University of Wales, Cardiff): Genre as parergon: towards the framing of Schoenberg’s Chamber Symphony Op. 9 Lee Tsang (University of Southampton): Generating an ‘original form’: timbral and intervallic structures in Webern’s Orchestral Piece, Op. 10, No. 1 Session 4b (Room 120) Helen Smith (University of Birmingham): Theatre versus concert hall: conflicting interests or interdependent genres in Leonard Bernstein’s works? Peter Elsdon (University of Southampton): Coltrane at the Vanguard: jazz on the brink 12.45-13.45 Lunch 14.00-15.15 Session 5a (Room 106) Nathan Helsby (University of Southampton): Issues of form in the last movement of Brahms’s Violin Sonata Op. 108: an analysis from Schenker’s‘Kleine Bibliotek’ Richard Potter (Anglia Polytechnic University): The Hanslick problem: music ‘an sich’ Session 5b (Room 120) John Richards (University of York): Innerlichkeit and the source [and paper to be confirmed] 15.15-15.45 Editors’ Roundtable &/or Discussion Groups 15.45-16.15 Tea 16.15-18.00 Session 6a (Room 106) Tatyana Sirotina: Russian opera at the beginning of the twentieth century: the influence and innovations of Rimsky-Korsakov Joanna Harris (Trinity College, Cambridge): Problems of harmonic ‘functionality’ in Janácek’s Vec Makropulos [and paper to be confirmed] Session 6b (Sir Jack Lyons Concert Hall) Electro-Acoustic Composition Workshop 18.30-19.30 Dinner 19.30 Concert of Electro-Acoustic Compositions (Sir Jack Lyons Concert Hall) 21.30 Bar Wednesday 16 December 8.00-9.00 Breakfast 9.30-10.45 Session 7a (Room 106) Jennifer Kelly (Trinity College, Dublin): John Cage: paradox David Walters (University of Durham): A dialectic of interconnection: a study of Pierre Boulez’s ideas on the primacy of musical language Session 7b (Room 120) Jenny Hodgson (Princeton University): Scribal texting preferences and Firminus Caron: the masses of Biblioteca Vaticana, Cappella Sistina MS 51 Margaret Duncumb (Clare College, Cambridge): From Valencia to Montserrat 10.45-11.15 Coffee 11.15-12.30 Session 8a (Room 106) Greg Laybourn (Goldsmiths College, University of London): The rôle of post-structuralism and ideology in music analysis since the 1980s Sandra Rigby-Barrett (University of Reading): Octatonicism and pitch-class sets in Weir: an analytical discussion of Ascending into Heaven and/or Illuminare, Jerusalem Session 8b (Room 120) Mieko Kanno (University of York): The rôle of notation in the performance practice of new music James Saunders (Huddesfield University): Finding time, finding space 12.45-13.45 Lunch 14.00-15.15 Session 9a (Room 106) Paul Gameson (University of York): La Semaine Sainte a Paris, c.1660: a case study of the contents of F-Pn MS Rés. Vma 571 Paul Atkin (Royal Holloway College, University of London): Ducal display and public patronage: the case of L’ingresso alla gioventù di Claudio Nerone at the Teatro Fontanelli, Modena (1692) Session 9b (Sir Jack Lyons Concert Hall) Composition Workshop I with Capricorn 15.15-15.45 Business Meeting 15.45-16.15 Tea 16.15-18.00 Session 10a (Room 106) [Papers to be confirmed] Session 10b (Sir Jack Lyons Concert Hall) Composition Workshop II with Capricorn 18.30-19.30 Dinner 19.30 Concert by Capricorn 21.30 Bar Thursday 17 December 8.00-9.00 Breakfast 9.30-10.45 Session 11a (Room 106) Konstantinos Chardas (University of Surrey): Pitch structure and organization in the early ‘impressionistic’ piano works of Yannis A. Papaioannou Lorraine Crowe (Lancaster University): Maconchy, Lutyens and the crisis of ‘modernism’ Session 11b (Room 120) Michael Fleming (Open University): Are English string instruments all they are not cracked up to be? Meredith McFarlane (Royal College of Music): Méthode d’alto by François Cupis: the application of a late eighteenth-century book for viola 10.45-11.15 Coffee 11.15-12.30 Session 12a (Room 106) Andrew Love (University of Hull): Spontaneity and the theology of the Catholic liturgy: a study in improvisation Bethany Lowe (University College, Scarborough & University of Southampton): On the relation between analysis and performance: the nature of the ‘interpretation’ Session 12b (Room 120) Jamie Savan (Oxford Brookes University): On the trail of ‘little snakes’ inMozart’s Ascanio in Alba Clive McClelland (University of Leeds): Ombra music and the sublime in eighteenth-century aesthetic theory 12.45-13.45 Lunch and depart ABSTRACTS Paul Atkin (Royal Holloway College, University of London) Ducal display and public patronage: the case of L’ingresso alla gioventù di Claudio Nerone at the Teatro Fontanelli, Modena (1692) L’ingresso alla gioventù di Claudio Nerone was commissioned to celebrate the marriage in 1692 of Duke Francesco II d’Este to Princess Margherita Farnese. A century after opera’s emergence from the wedding festivities of the Medici, and following its subsequent dissemination through the Italian courts and public theatres, this lavish production amounted to the remarkable contradiction of a ceremonial ‘court’ opera being given in a privately run ‘public’ theatre, where the eventual heavy loss incurred became the responsibility not of the duke’s court, but of the theatre’s impresario. Given that the duke was an enthusiastic patron of opera in Modena, who, in 1685, had effectively ‘contracted-out’ ‘court’ opera to the Teatro Fontanelli, what can we deduce about the mechanisms of opera patronage and production in Modena at this time, and what are the implications for understanding the presumed distinction between seventeenth-century ‘court’ and ‘public’ opera? Konstantinos Chardas (University of Surrey) Pitch structure and organization in the early ‘impressionistic’ piano works of Yannis A. Papaioannou The Greek composer Yannis A. Papaioannou (1910- 1989) was one of the pioneers in the field of ‘modern’ compositional idioms in his country. Living in a musical culture dominated by the aesthetics of the Greek Nationalistic School he searched for an individual means of expression by adopting and assimilating certain twentieth century stylistic resources. His music until 1952 borrowed much from the technical devices and aesthetic strands of turn of the century French composers, while the year 1953 marked the beginning of a consistently atonal phase. The present paper attempts a closer analytical investigation of the salient technical features related to pitch structure and organisation in his output up to 1952. The discussion focuses on issues as related in two piano pieces which were written almost a decade apart (late 1930s and late 1940s). These pieces represent both the ‘impressionistic’ stylistic roots and the evolution of Papaioannou’s musical language and thinking. Chris Collins (University of Wales, Bangor) Falla and Poulenc: a friendship of opposites Falla and Poulenc enjoyed a friendship which lasted for over twenty years. From 1918 to 1939, the two composers moved in the same circles, and shared a number of common influences. Moreover, they greatly admired each other’s work. However, the strength of their friendship is surprising given the highly opposite nature of their personalities. Falla was shy and devoutly religious; he worked slowly and meticulously, and lived an apparently celibate existence. Poulenc, by contrast, openly led an active sex life; he was fond of high society, had a faith which was at most uncertain, and was able to compose quickly and on demand. This paper argues that the differences between the characters of these two composers have parallels in their music. This will be demonstrated through reference to two superficially similar works: Falla’s Concerto for Harpsichord and Five Instruments, and Poulenc’s Concert champêtre. Lorraine Crowe (Lancaster University) Maconchy, Lutyens and the crisis of ‘modernism’ This paper suggests that Maconchy and Lutyens largely endorsed European rather than British solutions to the crisis which has come to be known as ‘modernism’. This European focus suggests that Adorno’s modernist writings might prove a useful model from which to draw. For Adorno the rupture between ‘I’ or ‘self’ (as individual subjectivity) and ‘forms’ (as handed-down forms representing a collective objectivity)—or the tension between old and new—is the fundamental conflict of modernism. The old/new dichotomy as portrayed in the ironic use of ‘outmoded forms’ is somewhat exaggerated in Lutyens’s and Maconchy’s twenty-six String Quartets due to the use of a traditionally hierarchical ‘form’ as a vehicle for modernist expression. As this paper will illustrate, Maconchy and Lutyens found many ways to deal with this rupture, primarily in their striving for an individuality far removed from what Constant Lambert has called ‘the English cowpat school’. Margaret Duncumb (Clare College, Cambridge) >From Valencia to Montserrat This paper examines the journey of a Spanish seventeenth-century manuscript containing polyphonic music for the liturgy which was probably copied in Valencia but is now housed in the Biblioteca, Montserrat. It may have been a fire which created the circumstances causing it to be stored, found and brought to Montserrat, but the manuscript contains evidence of use not only in the seventeenth century but also during the eighteenth, nineteenth and twentieth centuries. Peter Elsdon (University of Southampton) Coltrane at the Vanguard: jazz on the brink John Coltrane’s ‘Chasin’ the Trane’ from the 1961 Village Vanguard sessions stands, delicately poised, between two traditions in jazz. The twelve-bar blues structure constitutes a familiar backdrop, part of a longstanding tradition in jazz which stretched right back to its origins. But Coltrane’s fifteen-minute improvisation pushes the harmonic, rhythmic, and expressive boundaries of the form to their limits and beyond. It was a clear sign that Coltrane was moving towards the avant-garde. The critical response to the recording demonstrates how some writers were attempting to create a canon within jazz, dismissing Coltrane’s music on various grounds, including rather famously being ‘anti-jazz’. But Coltrane’s performance caused a stir not just because of the assault it mounted on formal boundaries, but for its inexorable search for new forms of expression. Jazz was certainly on the brink of something, but it was a something profoundly more challenging than musical freedom. Michael Fleming (Open University) Are English string instruments all they are not cracked up to be? Compared with the makers of violins, very little is known about the makers of viols. This situation is exacerbated by the low standing of English lutherie in a field dominated by all things Italian. Assessing 17th-century English viols by relying on 18th-century Italo-centric violin criteria and 19th-century theories of evolution has resulted in fundamental misunderstandings of English lutherie. Attempts at more precise focus have suffered from excessive reliance on a very small number of contemporary sources. This paper describes and evaluates the changing reputation of English lutherie during the last four centuries. The current view is shown to be derived from preconceptions which neglect or deny the objective evidence of instruments. Paul Gameson (University of York) La Semaine Sainte a Paris, c.1660: a case study of the contents of F-Pn MS Rés. Vma 571 The Lenten oratorios and leçon de ténèbres of Charpentier, Couperin and their contemporaries were as popular with congregations in Paris as they are with audiences today. As early as the middle of the century, contemporary journals describe well-attended performances, though there was once thought to be no musical evidence of this. However, a considerable proportion of a manuscript from this time, now held in the Paris Bibliothèque Nationale (F-Pn MS Rés. Vma 571), concentrates on this period of the Church year and includes psalms, hymns and responsories. This paper will first describe the contents and explain the relevance of the manuscript. The source is shown to be one of the most important collections of French sacred music from the mid-seventeenth century. Secondly, the music for Holy Week contained in the manuscript will be discussed in the context of its precedents and subsequent influence. Musical examples will be performed by members of the Ebor Singers. Joanna Harris (Trinity College, Cambridge) Problems of harmonic ‘functionality’ in Janácek’s Vec Makropulos In choosing a vocabulary with which to examine the harmony of Janácek’s operas, the analyst faces many difficulties. The analysis of pitch-relationships in twentieth-century music is characterised by sharp ideological differences. Some writers assert that ‘atonal’ music is still heard in terms of traditional tonal procedures, some attempt to formulate an expanded understanding of tonality, while others celebrate the liberation of music from the perceived constraints of ‘tonal’ thinking. Janácek’s music has been repeatedly described by John Tyrrell as ‘always functional’. In this he follows Janácek’s own assertion that music cannot be atonal. This paper will discuss the relationship between ‘tonality’ and ‘functionality’ with specific reference to the final act of Vec Makropulos. Different pitch-analyses will be compared and evaluated, in order to demonstrate how an analytic language, capable of describing how harmony relates to other dimensions of the opera, may be developed. Nathan Helsby (University of Southampton) Issues of form in the last movement of Brahms’s Violin Sonata Op. 108: an analysis from Schenker’s ‘Kleine Bibliotek’ The last movement of Brahms’s Violin Sonata in D minor, Op. 108, has generally been interpreted as an unorthodox sonata form, the return of the main subject immediately following the exposition being viewed merely as a reminiscence introducing the development. Given the development’s preoccupation with the first theme, the subsequent reversed-recapitulation is deemed necessary to avoid over-repetition of the first subject. By contrast, Schenker’s unpublished essay on the movement, held in the Oster Collection and dating from early in his career, unequivocally asserts a rondo. This paper will discuss Schenker’s analysis of the movement, determining the criteria that inform this interpretation. Evidence from elsewhere in the collection—principally unpublished essays from the same period and notes in the file on form—will also be invoked to provide further insight into Schenker’s understanding and theorising of form during the early 1910s. Monika Hennemann A history of Mendelssohn’s unwritten operas Though Mendelssohn never completed a mature opera, he considered around fifty subjects, read the respective scenarios or librettos, and rejected most of them. For a critical evaluation of his life-long struggle with opera composition, two issues seem particularly important: 1. National styles: After a period of ‘openness’ to French and Italian styles, Mendelssohn defined himself as a German composer obliged to produce ‘German’ opera. 2. Genre: Mendelssohn as a ‘virtual’ opera composer shows a development from Singspiel to serious opera with spoken dialogue and finally to through-composed opera, which reflects the general development in German opera during that time. Mendelssohn’s ‘failure’ to produce a mature opera—despite his audiences’ high expectations—cannot be blamed solely on his potential libretti. It was rather based on his specific and changing demands on the libretti, as well as his moral views and compositional abilities, and most prominently the position he decided to fill in the cultural life of his time. Jenny Hodgson (Princeton University) Scribal texting preferences and Firminus Caron: the masses of Biblioteca Vaticana, Cappella Sistina MS 51 This paper explores compositional texting practices in the masses of Firminus Caron, taking the identification and analysis of scribal copying methods in Biblioteca Vaticana, Cappella Sistina MS 51 as a starting point. Methods of text placement in the mid-fifteenth century mass repertories are notoriously difficult to assess at the compositional level largely due to inconsistencies and omissions both within and between manuscript sources. However, individual scribes’ copying preferences occasionally show patterns which suggest the presence of well-established personal principles regarding the presence or absence of texting. These patterns are often independent of the particular stylistic demands of the music. In the specific works considered, the scribes’ intentions will be established and an assessment of certain principles of syllable/phrase replication, reassignment or omission will be used to evaluate the degree to which changing expectations regarding texting were frequently at odds with music-tone relationships at the compositional level. The manner in which the former are distinct from--—and often at variance with—the stylistic features and requirements of the repertory in question will form the basis of this paper. Mieko Kanno (University of York) The rôle of notation in the performance practice of new music Twentieth-century music has seen a great increase in the value given to exactitude in notation and its execution. The extent of precision in performance demanded by notation can sometimes go beyond what is attainable through human efforts. Consequently notation has generated occasional confrontations between composers and performers—the former questioning the latter’s technical or interpretative skills or the latter accusing the former of being unpragmatic or unnecessarily complex. The present paper first examines substantive differences between notation and performance. It then discusses the problems of the regulative force notation exercises as a cultural factor in Western music. Finally the paper suggests possible approaches a performer can have towards notation in order to reach more appropriate representations of musical works. Jennifer Kelly (Trinity College, Dublin) John Cage: paradox Richard Taruskin’s article ‘No ear for music: the scary purity of John Cage’ which appeared in The New Republic in 1993, a highly critical account of Cage’s output and influence, placed within the scheme of the mid-century modernist composers, marked a new maturity in Cage writing. Taruskin highlights the divide between Cage’s devotees and the rôle the musicological world played in ‘creating’ an antithetical figure such as Cage’s. Taruskin includes numerous examples of the paradoxical relationships between acceptance and resistance, approval and disapproval of Cage’s aesthetic. In this paper I would like to show the pivotal rôle such paradoxical relationships play in furthering appreciation of aesthetic innovation. By comparing how this pivotal rôle in logical paradox has become an essential rôle in philosophy and mathematics, I hope to demonstrate how the paradoxical relationships of Cage’s aesthetic will become an essential rôle in present and future musicological thinking. Greg Laybourn (Goldsmiths College, University of London) The rôle of post-structuralism and ideology in music analysis since the 1980s This paper will provide a critical review of the current state of post-structuralist music theory and analysis. It will centre on two substantial works inspired by the literary theories of Harold Bloom, namely ‘Towards a New Poetics of Musical Influence’ by Kevin Korsyn (Music Analysis 10: 1, 1991) and Remaking the Past by Joseph Straus (1990), together with the critical reception they received. Korsyn’s work will be examined in detail, focusing on its implications for both music analysis and critical theory, and will be viewed in its intended context, that of an answer to Alan Street’s ‘Superior Myths and Dogmatic Allegories: the Resistance to Musical Unity’ (Music Analysis 1989). The problems in contemporary analysis that provoked Street’s article nine years ago will also be addressed in the light of subsequent critical discourse, and his criticisms of more traditional analytic techniques re-evaluated. Andrew Love (University of Hull) Spontaneity and the theology of the Catholic liturgy: a study in improvisation Spontaneity, including that of improvisatory music, plays an essential rôle in the religious and revelatory function of the Christian litugy. This is because both liturgy and improvisation are future-oriented. Liturgy is future-oriented because it directs worshipers mentally and spiritually towards the heavenly goal of Christian existence of which it is essentially an adumbration. Improvisation is future-oriented because it requires an intensive mental concentration by the improviser on what is about to happen in the music being improvised. Improvisation thus has the power to speak to the subliminal mind of that-which-is-going-to-be. A case study in the organist-improviser Charles Tournemire (1870-1939) will illustrate these issues. Bethany Lowe (University College, Scarborough & University of Southampton) On the relation between analysis and performance: the nature of the ‘interpretation’ The question of the relation between musical analysis and musical performance is currently much under debate in the growing field of performance studies. Some attention has been focussed on the existence of an intersecting area between them, yet the nature of this overlap has not been adequately established. In this paper I propose a new model for considering the relation between analysis and performance which incorporates three elements instead of two, thereby removing much of the confusion from the models which have recently been proposed. This model also diffuses the dominance of analysis over performance for which earlier writers have been criticised. The appropriation of a useful term to cover this third element is explored, and some features that might characterise this abstract phenomenon are presented. The multiplicity and non-determined quality of the ‘interpretation’ element will be stressed throughout, and some incorrect models for this element will be considered. Clive McClelland (University of Leeds) Ombra music and the sublime in eighteenth-century aesthetic theory Ombra scenes in opera are those in which ghosts, demons or other supernatural phenomena appear. Such scenes were immensely popular in eighteenth-century opera, not only because of the spectacular effects employed by stage designers, but also because of the special nature of the music provided. Music of this type also began to appear in a non-dramatic context, as a rhetorical gesture in instrumental music. Ombra was not a term used in the eighteenth century, but words such as ‘elevated’ and ‘sublime’ occurred frequently to describe music in this style. Ombra can therefore be placed in the context of a much wider aesthetic debate during the eighteenth century, especially in England. Writers such as John Dennis, Hildebrand Jacob, John Ballie and especially Edmund Burke made important observations on the sublime that can be closely related to the characteristics associated with Ombra music. By the beginning of the nineteenth century these links become more explicit, particularly in the lectures given by the composer William Crotch. Meredith McFarlane (Royal College of Music) Méthode d’alto by François Cupis: the application of a late eighteenth-century book for viola Méthode d’alto by François Cupis, is among one of the earliest complete instruction books for the viola. An overview of François Cupis’ life and works will provide a background to the source, while a detailed examination of the key technical features of the treatise, will provide a critical appraisal of viola technique as presented by Cupis in the Méthode d’alto. The text provides basic precepts for holding the viola and bow, positioning the arms and hands, finger action and position-work, with references to the fundamental bow stroke and tone production. These areas will be investigated with reference to other treatises and related to contemporaneous performance practice, alongside discussion of Cupis’ accompanying duos and the final virtuosic etude. The aim of this paper is to establish, investigate and evaluate the true pedagogical merit of this hitherto neglected tutor and place it in an appropriate historical perspective, while highlighting the invaluable benefits of studying early treatises and instructional material. Matthew Nisbet (University of Manchester) The Tabley House Lute Book A manuscript containing 69 solos for 12-course lute and two solos and one song accompaniment for 5-course guitar was discovered in 1987 at Tabley House, Knutsford in Cheshire. Despite its importance as a 17th-century English lute source, very little printed information about the manuscript has appeared to date. Details of its provenance remain somewhat unclear. However initials stamped on the book and names written on the flyleaf provide some evidence as to the extent of its connections with Tabley House. Natasha Page (University of Wales, Cardiff) Genre as parergon: towards the framing of Schoenberg’s Chamber Symphony Op. 9 This paper considers the possibilities for the study of musical genre created by an interpretation of Jacques Derrida’s strategies of deconstruction, with particular reference to the texts Parergon from The Truth in Painting, and The Law of Genre. In Parergon Derrida compares the parergon to a frame and it is this notion of framing that permits the analogy of parergon and genre. In order to illustrate the analytical and interpretative consequences of the application of Derrida’s thought to questions of musical genre, reference will be made to Schoenberg’s Chamber Symphony Op. 9, as this work may be understood to have a problematic relationship with traditional perceptions of its genre. Richard Potter (Anglia Polytechnic University) The Hanslick problem: music ‘an sich’ Hanslick’s Vom Musikalisch-Schönen defined a new attitude to music: it aimed to show how music might be an object of knowledge. My aim in this paper is to show how this resulted in a mistaken perspective on music and on musical experience, and how it introduced into the study of music a host of damaging concepts and invalid methodological criteria. If the ‘Hanslick problem’ is still with us —if, for example, it sometimes looks as if there is an unbridgeable gulf between music as an object of musicological inquiry and music ‘as heard’, and between theory and history—then a reassessment of Hanslick’s work offers to throw new light on this predicament. In concluding, I am going to argue that a greater sensitivity to interpretative questions—questions of musical value ands musical meaning, precisely the questions that Hanslick tried to set aside once and for all—is now desirable. Robert Rawson (Royal Holloway College, University of London) Central European instrumental music in English archives: the autograph of Gottfried Finger identified Several English manuscripts contain instrumental music by the Moravian viola da gamba virtuoso and composer Gottfried Finger (165?-1730). A large number of the pieces in these manuscripts are anonymous but this paper reveals concordances with music by Finger as well as by other central European composers in Continental manuscripts. In addition to helping with the attribution of anonymous works, the discovery of Finger’s autograph has revealed unique sources of seventeenth-century music from Olomouc and Kromeriz in English archives. Through close examination of handwriting, copying conventions, paper types and regional stylistic peculiarities, this study identifies for the first time Finger’s autograph in manuscripts in Oxford, Durham, Kromeriz and Suenching. John Richards (University of York) Innerlichkeit and the source This paper considers how certain aspects of late Romantic ideology and the tradition of Innerlichkeit can be found in the spectromorphological approach to electroacoustic composition. A compositional method that has a predilection towards the source can lead to a music that is intrinsically introspective. Immanuel Kant stated that any object that has intrinsic form has a ‘purposiveness without a purpose’. This view may also apply to ‘sound objects’. However, in music per se the listener may not be confined to listening to sounds and their constituent elements in isolation. In a multilayered work the importance of individual sounds and their spectromorphology is diminished as sounds are combined. The author considers, with reference to his composition Sounds of Music, ways of devaluing the individual sound source and suggests a ‘pluralistic’ and ‘generic’ approach to source material in electroacoustic composition. The use of ‘unique’ sources is also discussed. Considering these aspects, a compositional style arises that is directly opposed to spectromorphological thinking. Sandra Rigby-Barrett (University of Reading) Octatonicism and pitch-class sets in Weir: an analytical discussion of Ascending into Heaven and/or Illuminare, Jerusalem The analytical discussion will concern the relations between octatonic, tonal and chromatic elements in one or both of the following choral works: Ascending into Heaven and/or Illuminare, Jerusalem. The paper will examine Weir’s use of Messiaen’s modes of limited transposition, of which Mode 2 is prevalent, and will explore the variety of material within and outside the octatonic scale as well as passages in which Mode 2 apparently becomes indiscernible. In order to examine the modal and non-modal pitch collections and any possible relations between them and chromatic elements the apparatus of pitch-class set theory analysis will be employed. With this Messiaen’s modal identities can be clearly determined, particularly in passages where Mode 2 is incomplete or contains extra pitches. The relations become distinguishable and may be interpreted to present an understanding of a clear interaction with the meaning of the text(s). Matthew Riley (Royal Holloway College, University of London) The attentive listener: musical rhetoric in the German Enlightenment Recent years have witnessed a resurgence of interest in the comparison between music and rhetoric drawn from the sixteenth-century until the beginning of the nineteenth. This paper examines ideas articulated by three writers from near the end of that tradition: Johann Nikolaus Forkel, Heinrich Christoph Koch and Johann Georg Sulzer. Instead of making reference to the oratorical treatises of antiquity, however, I ground their work in an eighteenth-century view of the human mind that treated all mental processes ultimately as forms of attention. Plagued by the possibility of listener distraction, these theorists explained periodicity, large-scale formal plans, and other devices common in late eighteenth-century music in terms of attention renewal and re-stimulation. From this there arose a question still at issue in today’s musicology: the extent to which divergent hearings of the same music can possess equal validity. Stephen Rose (Wolfson College, Cambridge) Reinventing the stile antico: modal theory and print culture in the early German Baroque The changes of pitch organisation around 1600 coincide with the rise of attempts to analyse music. The analytical impulse originated partly in the need to justify and classify new Baroque styles, partly in the increased printing of treatises and music (a printed piece is reified as a musical work and so invites analysis). The early Baroque redefined modal theory as an analytical tool for labelling tonal centres. Seventeenth-century styles generally have clearer tonal centres than sixteenth-century styles and so are easier to analyse. Indeed, in the early seventeenth century the analytical impulse changed German understandings of the stile antico. Christoph Bernhard struggled to describe the shifting tonal foci in Palestrina’s offertories; Marco Scacchi and Paul Siefert disputed whether a clear tonal centre is a characteristic of the stile antico; and Heinrich Schütz’s Geistliche Chormusik reinvents the stile antico to give a clarity of tonal centre never found in Palestrina. James Saunders (Huddersfield University) Finding time, finding space The real problem in composition is what to do with time. Although the way composers articulate a musical space is fundamentally dependent on how this dimension is dealt with, it is perhaps surprising how often our work lies within such a narrow range of received potentialities. Feldman talks of his generation’s obsession with the twenty-five minute piece and the way in which they learnt how to handle it: it was an institutionalisation of form. If, as in his late pieces, this frame of reference is radically altered many assumptions about music need to be addressed. My recent compositions are all under thirty seconds long. This approach has necessitated a questioning of both the formal designs of music and the scalic relationship of gesture to musical silence, and of how to find time and space when both are extremely limited. Jamie Savan (Oxford Brookes University) On the trail of ‘little snakes’ in Mozart’s Ascanio in Alba Mozart’s Ascanio in Alba was commissioned for the marriage of Archduke Ferdinand of Austria and Princess Maria Beatrice d’Este of Modena in Milan in 1771. One aria, No. 25, ‘Torna mio bene’, is scored, uniquely, for two serpentini (literally ‘little snakes’). Considerable doubt exists as to the identity of these instruments. Some scholars have suggested that they might have been serpents, which others postulated the use of cors anglais. This paper offers a third possibility: the cornetto. The instrument’s history and musico-dramatic associations will be discussed, before dealing specifically with its symbolic rôle in the opera. The symbolism of the serpentini, together with the wider allegorical implications of the libretto (by Parini), may be seen to reflect and reinforce the prevailing social, political and philosophical Zeitgeist at a time of seminal change for the governance of Milan. Vania Schittenhelm (University of Reading) Changing forms: arrangements, transcriptions, translations Defining ‘arrangement’ and ‘transcription’ is not a straightforward task. Their meaning has varied frequently and the terms have also been employed interchangeably. Furthermore, during most of the twentieth century the practice of arranging and transcribing music has attracted much criticism. It has often been considered an inferior activity in relation to composing ‘original’ works, an antiquated procedure, a pretext for ‘improving’ a piece of music. This paper discusses the history of these concepts and how it reflects changing attitudes to issues such as authenticity and creativity. In this context, it suggests that instead of being outdated, arrangements and transcriptions can illuminate our understanding of what is a musical work, and also analyses why they are a recurrent practice. Patricia Shaw (University of Melbourne & Australian Catholic University) La Vida breve or La Vie brève: issues of authenticity in Manuel de Falla’s orchestration of his ‘Spanish’ dances Manuel de Falla (1876-1946) re-wrote and re-orchestrated substantial portions of his first major opera, La Vida breve, when he prepared it for its first performance in 1913. Although it was originally composed in Spain in 1905 to a Spanish libretto by Carlos Fernández Shaw, La Vida breve’s première took place in Nice, in French and under the title La Vie brève. Judging from the extant sketches, held at the Archivo Manuel de Falla in Granada, the composer took particular pains over the orchestration of the Danza (Act II, Tableau 1, Scene i), which is related musically and dramatically to the immediately preceding ‘Olé!’ chorus and to the second Danza at the beginning of Act II, Tableau 2, Scene i. Many different orchestrations were tried before he reached the final version. This paper will examine the links between the re-orchestrations and the various influences on Falla’s continuing refinement of ‘Spanishness’ in the music he wrote after his move to Paris in 1907. What image of Spain—and specifically of Andalusia rather than the Catalonia of Albéniz and Granados—was Falla seeking to portray in these ‘Spanish’ dances? To what extent did he draw on the ‘authentic’ sources of the cante jondo and zarzuela traditions? How was he influenced by important Hispanicist orchestral works such as Rimsky-Korsakov’s Capriccio espagnol (1887) and Ravel’s Rapsodie espagnol (1907)? To what extent was he influenced by or pandering to the expectations induced by fin-de-siècle French Hispanicism and ideas of couleur locale, and by the rôle of the ballet in French grand opéra? Tatyana Sirotina Russian opera at the beginning of the twentieth century: the influence and innovations of Rimsky-Korsakov This paper provides a general overview of Rimsky-Korsakov’s musical innovations in the area of operatic form and their influence on Russian opera in the first part of the twentieth century. His thoughts and findings in the area of style and genre in his last operas will be examined, as well as his attitude to Western music (e.g. Wagner’s orchestration and use of a leitmotiv-based dramaturgical line) and his search for a new kind of harmony (or musical language), which laid the foundations for ‘modern’ music. The conflict between Rimsky-Korsakov’s conscious orientation towards the images and musical traditions of the past and ‘a new musical ideology’ will also be looked at, and his principle of ‘calm descriptiveness’ in music will be compared with the detailed approach of the music of the 1920s. Finally, the ‘folk song atmosphere’ of Rimsky-Korsakov’s operas and the appearance in the 1920s of the genre of the ‘song opera’ based on folk music will be traced. Helen Smith (University of Birmingham) Theatre versus concert hall: conflicting interests or interdependent genres in Leonard Bernstein’s works? This paper looks at the alleged dichotomy of a composer who wrote successfully for what may be considered to be diverse genres, and details the actual integration of ideas and concepts from one into the other. It examines compositional techniques employed by Leonard Bernstein in the 1944 Broadway musical On the Town, and compares these techniques with those used by Bernstein in his contemporary ‘highbrow’ compositions. By looking closely at two numbers from the show, the ballet ‘Subway Ride and Imaginary Coney Island’ and the song ‘Carnegie Hall Pavane’, and comparing them with items of music he composed for the concert hall, I hope to demonstrate the interrelationship between the ‘Tin Pan Ally’ and ‘Carnegie Hall’ aspects of Bernstein’s creative output. Lee Tsang (University of Southampton) Generating an ‘original form’: timbral and intervallic structures in Webern’s Orchestral Piece, Op. 10, No. 1 Many of the analytical studies of Webern’s Op. 10, No. 1 discuss aspects of pitch and instrumentation (Hanson, 1976; Kabbash, 1983; Woodward, 1986; Plante, 1989; Karkoschka, 1990; IJzerman, 1990). Although most of these studies observe some symmetrical features and occasional timbral links, they do not resolve satisfactorily the question of the piece’s structure: too often, pitch and non-pitch aspects have been discussed in isolation. The studies by Robert Hanson and Paul Kabbash are perhaps exceptions: they attempt to draw together certain timbral and intervallic features, suggesting that the opening bars outline the piece’s ‘basic material’ (Hanson, 1976). My analysis intends to show that rather than a simple expository statement of a few musical ideas, these bars are carefully constructed to provide the kernel of the piece. In contrast to their studies, my exploration of the relationships amongst timbral and intervallic structures exposes the piece’s organicism, highlights its allusions to different tonalities, and clarifies the nature of its structural symmetries. The analysis provides, moreover, the basis for exploring the extent to which this piece, which was once entitled Urbild (‘Original Form’) by Webern himself (Hanson, 1976; Moldenhauer, 1978), may be regarded as the ‘source’ of the entire Op. 10 set. David Walters (University of Durham) A dialectic of interconnection: a study of Pierre Boulez’s ideas on the primacy of musical language This paper will examine the fundamental rôle of musical language in the writings of Pierre Boulez. I shall concentrate exclusively on Boulez’s early writings on music during the 1950s and early 1960s, drawing in particular from Penser la musique aujourd’hui (1963). During that period, high modernism in music concerned itself with both the establishment and exploration of musical language, specifically total serialism. I shall examine literary influences on Boulez, in particular Stéphane Mallarmé, influences from the visual arts, particularly Paul Klee’s writings, and musical influences, especially John Cage and Karlheinz Stockhausen. I shall also compare Boulez’s ideas on musical language with those of writers on music, for example Theodor Adorno and Carl Dahlhaus. Charles Wiffen (Royal College of Music) Lecture Recital: Solo piano transcriptions of Stravinsky’s Pétrouchka: a comparative evaluation and demonstration of the composer’s version with that of Théodore Szántó Igor Stravinsky’s transcription for solo piano of movements taken from his ballet Pétrouchka, was made for (and to a certain extent, in collaboration with) the pianist Arthur Rubinstein in 1921. Publication followed in Paris in 1922, the same year that Théodore Szántó’s version was published in Berlin. The latter comprises five movements (two of which are common to both suites), but has never enjoyed the status in the twentieth-century piano repertoire of the composer’s own transcription. The existence of Szántó’s contemporary response is illuminating, particularly as its textures, gestures and performance indications facilitate a typical late-romantic perspective of the original ballet score. Szántó places Stravinsky’s idiosyncratic, innovative and challenging pianistic approach in sharp relief. Fundamental aesthetic questions of literality, creativity and legitimacy are posed by this comparative demonstration, which appraises the differing responses of a composer and of an independent arranger to source material. Briony Williams (University of Reading) Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel and her Goethe lieder: an evolution of style Fanny Mendelssohn Hensel is one of the most historically important German composers of the nineteenth century, notably in regard to her extensive lieder output. These 249 lieder play a significant rôle in the evolution of the form from folk-song to art-song. Of particular interest are the settings of Goethe poems which make up more than an eighth of Hensel’s output, and cover the entire span of her composing career. Because of this wide span, these lieder reflect Hensel as composer and performer, as well as showing a correlation between her developing style and her lessening ties with authority figures in her life—namely, Abraham and Felix Mendelssohn, Carl Zelter and Goethe himself. Along with a generalised study of all 31 Goethe lieder, a more detailed analysis of the lied ‘Uber alle Gipfeln’ and comparison with Zelter’s setting of the same poem shows the connection between Hensel’s style and the changing circumstances of her life quite markedly.