The central argument is that in the case of Portugal, in the twentieth century, state-defined categorizations of public performances were used to control expressive behavior for political purposes. Using an ethnomusicology perspective, the analysis develops from the overarching questioning of the use of expressive behavior as a power tool in Lisbon, the capital city of Portugal. The period under consideration (1960-1985) includes the last years of the dictatorial regime of Antonio Salazar, and the first years of democracy.
Particular attention is given to the political constructs of the 1930s, which developed the bases for the ideology and praxis of the “National Dictatorship”, and to the process of revolution that led to democracy. The analysis reveals the extensive use of romantic models for the construction of national symbols which perpetuate European romantic myths, and the role of musical expression in the construction of national identity. The musical category of Fado appears as a case study in which the opposition between individual and structure in different instances becomes relevant. This dissertation draws extensively on previously