PAULINYI, Zoltan. Flausino Vale and Marcos Salles: influences of Franco-Belgian School on Brazilian works for solo violin. 197 pp. Dissertation (Master degree). Departamento de Música, Universidade de Brasília, Brasília, 2010. Available at: http://paulinyi.com/UnB2010mestrado.html.
Marcos Salles (1885-1965) and Flausino Vale (1894-1954) composed for solo violin at the beginning of 20th century, probably the first Brazilian-born composers of this kind of works. This study examines works by these two violinists friends, and identifies influences of the Franco-Belgian school on violin technique and repertoire in Brazil by comparison of characteristic instrumental formulas. The methodology for the study of ideologies is topical historicizing on works and words of the schools representatives. The distinction of schools is evinced by the repertoire for violin alone and treaties of Geminiani, Leopold Mozart, Baillot and Flesch, which document the technical and ideological evolution of violinistic playing. The comparison of the modern French school with the old one underlines a continuous development rather than a breach. The modern French school, led by Baillot since the beginning of the creation of the Conservatory of Paris in the late eighteenth century, established itself throughout Europe not only through the recognition of its artistic excellence, but also by powerful political ideology, shaping the musical education system and influencing the compositional style in several countries. The cultural background was different in Brazil, but the arrival of the modern French school influence has not delayed. In this context, Marcos Salles’ and Flausino Vale’s works seek some artistic autonomy rather than absolute independence because they don’t contradict European ideals. The first six Salles’ caprices (1907-1909) distinguish themselves from the Italian and the French-Belgian styles by their systematic modal alternations. Vale’s works, composed a little later, are divided between originals and transcriptions (or arrangements); they are framed within the ideological and landscape paradigms of national identity explained by Maria Alice Volpe (2001). His two newly accessible “themes with variations” extend perspectives on his violin technique. Fully published here, his score “Variations upon [Lehár’s] song Paganini” is one of the first documented uses of sotto le corde technique on the violin. Vale’s dozens transcriptions should not be underestimated: some of them possess high artistic value, like Bernardino Belém de Souza’s “A casinha pequenina” (“The very little house”), as well as the themes for his own variations. Among his transcriptions, there is a collection of sounds from nature, some of which were incorporated into his compositions and arrangements. The expansion of Flausino Vale’s general list of works incorporating transcriptions into his set of original works allows further research on the socio-historical musical practice in the State of Minas Gerais in the first half of the twentieth century.
Keywords: violin alone, solo, Flausino Vale, Marcos Salles, French-Belgian school